Latex Beamer Hide Bibliography Generator

LaTeX enables typesetting of hyperlinks, useful when the resulting format is PDF, and the hyperlinks can be followed. It does so using the package hyperref.


The package hyperref[1] provides LaTeX the ability to create hyperlinks within the document. It works with pdflatex and also with standard "latex" used with dvips and ghostscript or dvipdfm to build a PDF file. If you load it, you will have the possibility to include interactive external links and all your internal references will be turned to hyperlinks. The compiler pdflatex makes it possible to create PDF files directly from the LaTeX source, and PDF supports more features than DVI. In particular PDF supports hyperlinks. Moreover, PDF can contain other information about a document such as the title, the author, etc., which can be edited using this same package.


The basic usage with the standard settings is straightforward. Just load the package in the preamble:

This will automatically turn all your internal references into hyperlinks. It won't affect the way to write your documents: just keep on using the standard - system (discussed in the chapter on Labels and Cross-referencing); with hyperref those "connections" will become links and you will be able to click on them to be redirected to the right page. Moreover the table of contents, list of figures/tables and index will be made of hyperlinks, too. The hyperlinks will not show up if you are working in draft mode.


The package provides some useful commands for inserting links pointing outside the document.



\hyperref[label_name]{''link text''}

This will have the same effect as but will make the text link text a full link, instead. The two can be combined. If the lemma labelled as mainlemma was number 4.1.1 the following example would result in

We use \hyperref[mainlemma]{lemma \ref*{mainlemma}}.

We use lemma 4.1.1.

with the hyperlink as expected. Note the "*" after for avoiding nested hyperlinks.



It will show the URL using a mono-spaced font and, if you click on it, your browser will be opened pointing at it.




It will show the string description using standard document font but, if you click on it, your browser will be opened pointing at my_url. Here is an example:

\url{}\href{}{Wikibooks home}

Both point at the same page, but in the first case the URL will be shown, while in the second case the URL will be hidden. Note that, if you print your document, the link stored using will not be shown anywhere in the document.

Other possibilities[edit]

Apart from linking to websites discussed above, hyperref can be used to provide mailto links, links to local files, and links to anywhere within the PDF output file.

E-mail address[edit]

A possible way to insert email links is by


It just shows your email address (so people can know it even if the document is printed on paper) but, if the reader clicks on it, (s)he can easily send you an email. Or, to incorporate the url package's formatting and line breaking abilities into the displayed text, use[2]


When using this form, note that the command is fragile and if the hyperlink is inside of a moving argument, it must be preceeded by a command.

Local file[edit]

Files can also be linked using the url or the href commands. You simply have to add the string run: at the beginning of the link string:

\url{run:/path/to/my/file.ext}\href{run:/path/to/my/file.ext}{text displayed}

Following the version with does not always work, but does.

It is possible to use relative paths to link documents near the location of your current document; in order to do so, use the standard Unix-like notation ( is the current directory, is the previous directory, etc.)

Hyperlink and Hypertarget[edit]

It is also possible to create an anchor anywhere in the document (with or without caption) and to link to it. To create an anchor, use:

\hypertarget{label}{target caption}

and to link to it, use:

\hyperlink{label}{link caption}

where the target caption and link caption are the text that is displayed at the target location and link location respectively.

Note also that if you put a hypertarget, when clicking a link to that hypertarget, it may actually direct to the line after the hypertarget, which is not desirable. Therefore if this occurs, you can report the bug and refer to here for a solution.

Viewing in a browser[edit]

You can also get an external URL to the hypertarget by appending #label to the URL for the file, or right clicking one of the hyperlinks to the target and copying the URL, or getting the link from the headings in the sidebar of the PDF, or through a process of deduction from viewing (e.g. subsubsection 11.5.1 would have the label subsubsection.11.5.1). This can be useful e.g. for academic and pedagogical purposes. The URL will then direct to the target if you enable a PDF viewer that is compatible with PDF 1.5 in a browser, such as PDF Viewer for Chrome or Chromium browsers, and No PDF Download for Firefox; and on Android the Xodo app works best with links as it renders them with the correct border as with PDF desktop programs, followed by the Foxit PDF app which renders links highlighted in grey (while in other apps links may also work but without any special rendering, such as the Dropbox PDF viewer app; and yet others do not work with links, e.g Drive PDF viewer, PDF reader and Google PDF viewer). You may need to open the URL to the PDF in a new tab, otherwise it may prompt to download it (i.e. if you are clicking on the URL, don't left click, right click and select to open it in a new tab).


The standard settings should be fine for most users, but if you want to change something, that is also possible. There are several variables and two methods to pass those to the package. Options can be passed as an argument of the package when it is loaded (the standard way packages work), or the command can be used as follows:

\hypersetup{<option1> [, ...]}

you can pass as many options as you want; separate them with a comma. Options have to be in the form:

exactly the same format has to be used if you pass those options to the package while loading it, like this:

\usepackage[<option1, option2>]{hyperref}

Here is a list of the possible variables you can change (for the complete list, see the official documentation). The default values are written in an upright font:

Checkout 3.8 Big list at hyperref-manual at

show or hide the bookmarks bar when displaying the document
allows to use characters of non-Latin based languages in Acrobat’s bookmarks
set the style of the border around a link. The first two parameters (RadiusH, RadiusV) have no effect in most pdf viewers. Width defines the thickness of the border. Dash-Pattern is a series of numbers separated by space and enclosed by box-brackets. It is an optional parameter to specify the length of each line & gap in the dash pattern. For example, {0 0 0.5 [3 3]} is supposed to draw a square box (no rounded corners) of width 0.5 and a dash pattern with a dash of length 3 followed by a gap of length 3. There is no uniformity in whether/how different pdf viewers render the dash pattern.
show or hide Acrobat’s toolbar
show or hide Acrobat’s menu
resize document window to fit document size
fit the width of the page to the window
define the title that gets displayed in the "Document Info" window of Acrobat
the name of the PDF’s author, it works like the one above
subject of the document, it works like the one above
creator of the document, it works like the one above
producer of the document, it works like the one above
list of keywords, separated by commas, example below
define if a new PDF window should get opened when a link leads out of the current document. NB: This option is ignored if the link leads to an http/https address.
activate back references inside bibliography. Must be specified as part of the \usepackage{} statement.
surround the links by color frames () or colors the text of the links (). The color of these links can be configured using the following options (default colors are shown):
hide links (removing color and border)
color of internal links (sections, pages, etc.)
defines which part of an entry in the table of contents is made into a link
color of citation links (bibliography)
color of file links
color of URL links (mail, web)
color of frame around internal links (if )
color of frame around citations
color of frame around URL links

Please note, that explicit RGB specification is only allowed for the border colors (like linkbordercolor etc.), while the others may only assigned to named colors (which you can define your own, see Colors). In order to speed up your customization process, here is a list with the variables with their default value. Copy it in your document and make the changes you want. Next to the variables, there is a short explanations of their meaning:

\hypersetup{ bookmarks=true, % show bookmarks bar? unicode=false, % non-Latin characters in Acrobat’s bookmarks pdftoolbar=true, % show Acrobat’s toolbar? pdfmenubar=true, % show Acrobat’s menu? pdffitwindow=false, % window fit to page when opened pdfstartview={FitH}, % fits the width of the page to the window pdftitle={My title}, % title pdfauthor={Author}, % author pdfsubject={Subject}, % subject of the document pdfcreator={Creator}, % creator of the document pdfproducer={Producer}, % producer of the document pdfkeywords={keyword1, key2, key3}, % list of keywords pdfnewwindow=true, % links in new PDF window colorlinks=false, % false: boxed links; true: colored links linkcolor=red, % color of internal links (change box color with linkbordercolor) citecolor=green, % color of links to bibliography filecolor=magenta, % color of file links urlcolor=cyan % color of external links}

If you don't need such a high customization, here are some smaller but useful examples. When creating PDFs destined for printing, colored links are not a good thing as they end up in gray in the final output, making it difficult to read. You can use color frames, which are not printed:


or make links black:


or use \usepackage{hyperref} \hypersetup{hidelinks}

When you just want to provide information for the Document Info section of the PDF file, as well as enabling back references inside bibliography:

\usepackage[pdfauthor={Author's name},% pdftitle={Document Title},% pagebackref=true,% pdftex]{hyperref}

By default, URLs are printed using mono-spaced fonts. If you don't like it and you want them to be printed with the same style of the rest of the text, you can use this:


Problems with Links and Equations 1[edit]

Messages like the following

! pdfTeX warning (ext4): destination with the same identifier (name{ equation.}) has been already used, duplicate ignored

appear, when you have made something like


The error disappears, if you use instead this form:


Beware that the shown line number is often completely different from the erroneous line.

Possible solution: Place the amsmath package before the hyperref package.

Problems with Links and Equations 2[edit]

Messages like the following

! Runaway argument? {\@firstoffive }\fi ), Some text from your document here (\ref {re\ETC. Latex Error: Paragraph ended before \Hy@setref@link was complete.

appear when you use inside an environment.

Possible solution: Add the following to your preamble:


Note: The same error appears if you use a colon "" as part of a label, i.e. . Replacing that will help.

Problems with Links and Pages[edit]

Messages like the following:

! pdfTeX warning (ext4): destination with the same identifier (name{page.1}) has been already used, duplicate ignored

appear when a counter gets reinitialized, for example by using the command provided by the book document class. It resets the page number counter to 1 prior to the first chapter of the book. But as the preface of the book also has a page number 1 all links to "page 1" would not be unique anymore, hence the notice that "duplicate has been ignored." The counter measure consists of putting into the hyperref options. This unfortunately only helps with the page counter. An even more radical solution is to use the option , but this will cause the page links in the index to stop working.

The best solution is to give each page a unique name by using the command:

\pagenumbering{alph}% a, b, c, ... ... titlepage, other front matter ... \pagenumbering{roman}% i, ii, iii, iv, ... ... table of contents, table of figures, ... \pagenumbering{arabic}% 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ... beginning of the main matter (chapter 1) ...

Another solution is to use before the command , which will give the title page the label page.a. Since the page number is suppressed, it won't make a difference to the output.

By changing the page numbering every time before the counter is reset, each page gets a unique name. In this case, the pages would be numbered a, b, c, i, ii, iii, iv, v, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...

If you don't want the page numbers to be visible (for example, during the front matter part), use . The important point is that although the numbers are not visible, each page will have a unique name.

Another more flexible approach is to set the counter to something negative:

\setcounter{page}{-100} ... titlepage, other front matter ... \pagenumbering{roman}% i, ii, iii, iv, ... ... table of contents, table of figures, ... \pagenumbering{arabic}% 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ... beginning of the main matter (chapter 1) ...

which will give the first pages a unique negative number.

The problem can also occur with the package: because each algorithm uses the same line-numbering scheme, the line identifiers for the second and follow-on algorithms will be duplicates of the first.

The problem occurs with equation identifiers if you use on every line of an eqnarray environment. In this case, use the *'ed form instead, e.g. (which is an unnumbered equation array), and remove the now unnecessary commands.

If your url's are too long and running off of the page, try using the package to split the url over multiple lines. This is especially important in a multicolumn environment where the line width is greatly shortened.

Problems with bookmarks[edit]

The text displayed by bookmarks does not always look like you expect it to look. Because bookmarks are "just text", much fewer characters are available for bookmarks than for normal LaTeX text. Hyperref will normally notice such problems and put up a warning:

Package hyperref Warning: Token not allowed in a PDFDocEncoded string:

You can now work around this problem by providing a text string for the bookmarks, which replaces the offending text:

\texorpdfstring{''TEX text''}{''Bookmark Text''}

Math expressions are a prime candidate for this kind of problem:


which turns to in the bookmark area. Color changes also do not travel well into bookmarks:

\section{\textcolor{red}{Red !}}

produces the string "redRed!". The command gets ignored but its argument (red) gets printed. If you use:

\section{\texorpdfstring{\textcolor{red}{Red !}}{Red\ !}}

the result will be much more legible.

If you write your document in unicode and use the unicode option for the hyperref package you can use unicode characters in bookmarks. This will give you a much larger selection of characters to pick from when using .

Problems with tables and figures[edit]

The links created by hyperref point to the label created within the float environment, which, as previously described, must always be set after the caption. Since the caption is usually below a figure or table, the figure or table itself will not be visible upon clicking the link[4]. A workaround exists by using the package hypcap[2] with:

Be sure to call this package after loading hyperref.

If you use the wrapfig package[5] mentioned in the "Wrapping text around figures" section of the "Floats, Figures and Captions" chapter, or other similar packages that define their own environments, you will need to manually include in those environments, e.g.:

\begin{wrapfigure}{R}{0.5\textwidth}\capstart\begin{center}\includegraphics[width=0.48\textwidth]{filename}\end{center}\caption{\label{labelname}a figure}\end{wrapfigure}

Problems with long caption and \listoffigures or long title[edit]

There is an issue when using with hyperref for long captions or long titles. This happens when the captions (or the titles) are longer than the page width (about 7-9 words depending on your settings). To fix this, you need to use the option breaklinks when first declaring:


This will then cause the links in the to word wrap properly.

Problems with already existing .toc, .lof and similar files[edit]

The format of some of the auxilliary files generated by latex changes when you include the hyperref package. One can therefore encounter errors like

! Argument of \Hy@setref@link has an extra }.

when the document is typeset with hyperref for the first time and these files already exist. The solution to the problem is to delete all the files that latex uses to get references right and typeset again.

Problems with footnotes and special characters[edit]

See the relevant section.

Problems with Beamer[edit]

Using the command

\hyperref[some_label]{some text}

is broken when pointed at a label. Instead of sending the user to the desired label, upon clicking the user will be sent to the first frame. A simple work around exists; instead of using


to label your frames, use


and reference it with

\hyperlink{some_label}{some text}

Problems with draft mode[edit]

WARNING! Please note that if you have activated the "draft"-option in your \documentclass declaration the hyperlinks will not show up in the table of contents, or anywhere else for that matter!!!

The hyperlinks can be re-enabled by using the "final=true" option in the following initialization of the hyperref package, just after the package was included:


A good source of further options for the hyperref package can be found here [6].

Notes and References[edit]

BibTeX is reference management software for formatting lists of references. The BibTeX tool is typically used together with the LaTeX document preparation system. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as . The name is a portmanteau of the word bibliography and the name of the TeXtypesetting software.

The purpose of BibTeX is to make it easy to cite sources in a consistent manner, by separating bibliographic information from the presentation of this information, similarly to the separation of content and presentation/style supported by LaTeX itself.

Basic structure[edit]

In the words of the program’s author:

Here’s how BibTeX works. It takes as input

  1. an file produced by LaTeX on an earlier run;
  2. a file (the style file), which specifies the general reference-list style and specifies how to format individual entries, and which is written by a style designer [..] in a special-purpose language [..], and
  3. file(s) constituting a database of all reference-list entries the user might ever hope to use.

BibTeX chooses from the file(s) only those entries specified by the file (that is, those given by LaTeX's or commands), and creates as output a file containing these entries together with the formatting commands specified by the file [..]. LaTeX will use the file, perhaps edited by the user, to produce the reference list.[1]


BibTeX was created by Oren Patashnik and Leslie Lamport in 1985. It is written in WEB/Pascal.

Version 0.98f was released in March 1985.

With version 0.99c (released February 1988), a stationary state was reached for 22 years.

In March 2010, version 0.99d was released to improve URL printing. Further releases were announced.[1]


During the period following BibTeX's implementation in 1985, several reimplementations have been published:

A reimplementation of bibtex (by Yannis Haralambous and his students) that supports the UTF-8 character set. Taco Hoekwater of the LuaTeX team has criticized it.[2]
A reimplementation of bibtex that supports 8-bit character sets.
A completely compatible reimplementation of bibtex in Common Lisp, capable of using bibtex .bst files directly or converting them into human-readable Lisp .lbst files. CL-BibTeX supports Unicode in Unicode Lisp implementations, using any character set that Lisp knows about.
A reimplementation of BibTeX focusing on multilingual features, by Jean-Michel Hufflen.[3]
A complete reimplementation. "It redesigns the way in which LaTeX interacts with BibTeX at a fairly fundamental level. With biblatex, BibTeX is only used to sort the bibliography and to generate labels. Instead of being implemented in BibTeX's style files, the formatting of the bibliography is entirely controlled by TeX macros."[4] It uses the bibliography processing program Biber and offers full Unicode and theming support.
A drop-in BibTeX replacement based on style templates, including full Unicode support, written in Python.[5]

Bibliographic information file[edit]

BibTeX uses a style-independent text-based file format for lists of bibliography items, such as articles, books, and theses. BibTeX bibliography file names usually end in . A BibTeX database file is formed by a list of entries, with each entry corresponding to a bibliographical item. Entry types correspond to various types of bibliographic sources such as , , or .

An example entry which describes a mathematical handbook would be structured as an entry name followed by a list of fields, such as and :

@Book{abramowitz+stegun,author="Milton {Abramowitz} and Irene A. {Stegun}",title="Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables",publisher="Dover",year=1964,address="New York City",edition="ninth Dover printing, tenth GPO printing"}

If a document references this handbook, the bibliographic information may be formatted in different ways depending on which citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago etc.) is employed. The way LaTeX deals with this is by specifying commands and the desired bibliography style in the LaTeX document. If the command appears inside a LaTeX document, the program will include this book in the list of references for the document and generate appropriate LaTeX formatting code. When viewing the formatted LaTeX document, the result might look like this:

Abramowitz, Milton and Irene A. Stegun (1964), Handbook of mathematical functions with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables. New York: Dover.

Depending on the style file, BibTeX may rearrange authors' last names, change the case of titles, omit fields present in the file, format text in italics, add punctuation, etc. Since the same style file is used for an entire list of references, these are all formatted consistently with minimal effort required from authors or editors.

The types of entries and fields used in virtually all BibTeX styles BibTeX are listed below.

Entry types[edit]

A BibTeX database can contain the following types of entries:

An article from a journal or magazine.
Required fields: author, title, journal, year, volume
Optional fields: number, pages, month, note, key
A book with an explicit publisher.
Required fields: author/editor, title, publisher, year
Optional fields: volume/number, series, address, edition, month, note, key, url
A work that is printed and bound, but without a named publisher or sponsoring institution.
Required fields: title
Optional fields: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note, key
The same as , included for Scribe compatibility.
A part of a book, usually untitled. May be a chapter (or section, etc.) and/or a range of pages.
Required fields: author/editor, title, chapter/pages, publisher, year
Optional fields: volume/number, series, type, address, edition, month, note, key
A part of a book having its own title.
Required fields: author, title, booktitle, publisher, year
Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, type, chapter, pages, address, edition, month, note, key
An article in a conference proceedings.
Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year
Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, pages, address, month, organization, publisher, note, key
Technical documentation.
Required fields: title
Optional fields: author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note, key
A Master'sthesis.
Required fields: author, title, school, year
Optional fields: type, address, month, note, key
For use when nothing else fits.
Required fields: none
Optional fields: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note, key
A Ph.D. thesis.
Required fields: author, title, school, year
Optional fields: type, address, month, note, key
The proceedings of a conference.
Required fields: title, year
Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, address, month, publisher, organization, note, key
A report published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a series.
Required fields: author, title, institution, year
Optional fields: type, number, address, month, note, key
A document having an author and title, but not formally published.
Required fields: author, title, note
Optional fields: month, year, key

Field types[edit]

A BibTeX entry can contain various types of fields. The following types are recognized by the default bibliography styles; some third-party styles may accept additional ones:

Publisher's address (usually just the city, but can be the full address for lesser-known publishers)
An annotation for annotated bibliography styles (not typical)
The name(s) of the author(s) (in the case of more than one author, separated by )
The title of the book, if only part of it is being cited
The chapter number
The key of the cross-referenced entry
The edition of a book, long form (such as "First" or "Second")
The name(s) of the editor(s)
How it was published, if the publishing method is nonstandard
The institution that was involved in the publishing, but not necessarily the publisher
The journal or magazine the work was published in
A hidden field used for specifying or overriding the alphabetical order of entries (when the "author" and "editor" fields are missing). Note that this is very different from the key (mentioned just after this list) that is used to cite or cross-reference the entry.
The month of publication (or, if unpublished, the month of creation)
Miscellaneous extra information
The "(issue) number" of a journal, magazine, or tech-report, if applicable. (Most publications have a "volume", but no "number" field.)
The conference sponsor
Page numbers, separated either by commas or double-hyphens.
The publisher's name
The school where the thesis was written
The series of books the book was published in (e.g. "The Hardy Boys" or "Lecture Notes in Computer Science")
The title of the work
The field overriding the default type of publication (e.g. "Research Note" for techreport, "{PhD} dissertation" for phdthesis, "Section" for inbook/incollection)
The volume of a journal or multi-volume book
The year of publication (or, if unpublished, the year of creation)

In addition, each entry contains a key (Bibtexkey) that is used to cite or cross-reference the entry. This key is the first item in a BibTeX entry, and is not part of any field.

Style files[edit]

BibTeX formats bibliographic items according to a style file, typically by generating TeX or LaTeX formatting commands. However, style files for generating HTML output also exist. BibTeX style files, for which the suffix is common, are written in a simple, stack-based programming language (dubbed "BibTeX Anonymous Forth-Like Language", or "BAFLL", by Drew McDermott) that describes how bibliography items should be formatted. There are some packages which can generate files automatically (like custom-bib or Bib-it).

Most journals or publishers that support LaTeX have a customized bibliographic style file for the convenience of the authors. This ensures that the bibliographic style meets the guidelines of the publisher with minimal effort.


  • NASA Astrophysics Data System – The ADS is an online database of over eight million astronomy and physics papers and provides BibTeX format citations.
  • INSPIRE-HEP – The INSPIRE High-Energy Physics literature database provides BibTeX format citations for over one million high-energy physics papers.
  • BibSonomy – A social bookmark and publication management system based on BibTeX.
  • Citavi - Reference manager. Works with various TeX-Editors and supports BibTeX input and output.
  • CiteSeer – An online database of research publications which can produce BibTeX format citations.
  • CiteULike – A community based bibliography database with BibTeX input and output.
  • The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies – uses BibTeX as internal data format, search results and contributions primarily in BibTeX.
  • Connotea – Open-source social bookmark style publication management system.
  • Digital Bibliography & Library Project – A bibliography website that lists more than 910,000 articles in the computer science field.
  • Google Books - The bibliographic information for each book is exportable in BibTeX format via the 'Export Citation' feature.
  • Google Scholar – Google's system for searching scholarly literature provides BibTeX format citations if you enable the option in 'Scholar Preferences'.
  • Google Research – Google Research provides BibTeX format citations for all research papers.[6]
  • HubMed – A versatile PubMed interface including BibTeX output.
  • MathSciNet – Database by the American Mathematical Society (subscription), choose BibTeX in the "Select alternative format" box
  • Mendeley – Reference Manager, for collecting papers. It supports exporting collections into bib files and keep them synchronized with its own database.[7]
  • Qiqqa – Provides a fully featured BibTeX editor and validator, along with tools for automatically populating BibTeX records for your PDFs.
  • refbase – Open source reference manager for institutional repositories and self archiving with BibTeX input and output.
  • RefTeX – Emacs based reference manager
  • Wikindx – Open source Virtual Research Environment/enhanced bibliography manager including BibTeX input and output.
  • Zentralblatt MATH – Database by the European Mathematical Society, FIZ Karlsruhe and Heidelberg Academy (subscription, 3 free entries); choose BibTeX button or format.
  • Zotero – Firefox plugin with advanced features such as synchronization between different computers, social bookmarking, searching inside saved PDFs and BibTeX output.

See also[edit]

Data schemes

  • EndNote – a text-based data scheme used by the EndNote program
  • refer – an aging text-based data scheme supported on UNIX-like systems
  • RIS – a text-based data scheme from Research Information Systems



External links[edit]

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