This discussion focuses on impact of effective teaching strategies on the students’ academic performance and learning outcome along with the researcher’s own experiences. A teacher plays a vital role within a few hours in the classroom by delivering the daily specific planned content which is a part of curriculum for a specific grade. It depends on the teacher to plan it out and use effective strategies for its instructional deliverance. Teachers must have passion for learning and teaching as well as to understand needs and interests of the students. World is changing and advancing day by day, so teachers need to be technology savvies as well, in order to meet new global emerging demands.
Stakeholders all over the world strive for quality education of children. First of all, there is a need to define quality education so that one can differentiate it from less-preferred education. Similarly, there are many educators and researchers who have debated that there are some school variables which influence the students’ achievement in particular. According to Coleman (2003), minimal role is played by the schools as far as the students’ achievement is concerned because it is independent of their background as well as societal factors. On the other hand, a few researchers suggest that factors like class size and space (Glass 2001), the teachers’ qualification (Ferguson, 2004), the school’s size and space (Haller, 1993), and a few more variables play a vital role in what the students learn in general.
Explaining Quality Teaching
Research points out that Quality teaching is tend to necessarily be student-centred. It aims to help most and for all students learning. Therefore, focus should not only be pedagogical skills, but also learning environment that must address the students’ personal needs. Students should also be aware as to why they are working so that they are able to relate to other students and receive help if required.
As a result, great emphasis has been laid on “quality teaching” by many educators. In the same way, there is a need of elaborating the term “quality teaching”. Globalization has influenced each and everyone’s life. Quality, successful and effective learning actually depends on several factors e.g. availability and selection of instructional resources, staffing quality, nature and its level, professional development implication as a system, and also the support of parents and administration. Recently, research also highlights one of the key features of “quality teaching” i.e. student-centred classrooms, which aims to benefit all students learning.
Global demands and changes
Therefore, learning environment along with teachers’ pedagogical skills is important for quality education (Johnson, 2007). Similarly, the students have also become both, geographically and socially diversified. There is a great need of new teaching methods and pedagogies to meet global challenges. Hence, we can say that there is also a need of change in the learner and teachers’ means of interaction. All the schools are striving to integrate curriculum with technology so that the students are provided quality education and learning takes place their way and they are focusing to provide quality education to the students by all the means so that they are ahead in the education industry.
Aiding to Growth
According to Alton-Lee (2004), the teachers should align their professional experiences with their teaching practices and pedagogies in order to benefit their students. Agreeing to Alton-Lee, these days one of the major roles of the teachers is to ensure that the content delivered has achieved the learning objective, which can be considered a key challenge. Despite the years of teaching experience, there is always a room for improvement and innovation for the teachers to adapt as per their requirement. Demands and needs change time to time so the teachers should also undergo professional and personal development to benefit both, the students and themselves as well, both are the learners. There is no age limit for learning; it depends on priorities and awareness only.
Another researcher, Deppeler (2000), suggests that the teachers would be able to change their teaching practices when they would reflect upon them and engage themselves in examining their own theories of teaching practices. But, ironically, it is a fact that the teachers hardly get any time to reflect on their daily practices, leading to improvement, or they are unaware of this process and it is out of question for them. They believe that delivering the content which has been planned for a specific day and subject is the basic necessity, neglecting the fact and being least bothered about knowing if the student learned or it was impossible for a student to grasp the basic concept even.
Roshenshine and Furst have introduced five variables of a teacher’s effectiveness, these are Variability, Clarity, Task-oriented, Enthusiasm and the last one is the students’ opportunity to learn criterion material. We must say that these are indeed a few components essential for a teacher to be known as effective, but there are more key elements which help the teachers personally and professionally and also their students. These are being reflective, empathizing when required, respect students, a good communicator, her/his own love of learning and many more which makes a teacher effective and the most important part is the instruction strategy which he/she chooses to deliver content which helps students in learning more effectively.
Content (What) and Strategy (How)
Most of the teachers think that they can improve their teaching practices through developing sound knowledge of content that needs to be taught and delivered (Hill and Crevola, 2003). This is a major drawback in many schools. The teachers lose focus on their teaching strategies and they assume that the learners face difficulties because the content (what needs to be taught and delivered) is complicated or not of their interest, instead of realizing the fact that the teaching strategy (how to teach and deliver) should be more effective and as per their requirement and needs in order to generate their interest and better learning opportunity for the students. Furthermore, both, how and what are linked together but still far different and unique in nature.
Unique individual with unique learning style
All the educationists are well familiar with the fact that all the learners have a different learning style, whereas the problem lies in catering to all of them with an effective teaching strategy. Students learn in different ways as per their capabilities. Some learn by seeing, hearing, reflecting, modelling, reasoning, and drawing etc (Felder, 1998). With an agreement to Felder, similarly there are different teaching styles as well. Some give lectures, some discuss the topic, some make their students work in groups, some use technology, some use textbooks and many more. But, the main purpose behind these efforts is to help students grasp content knowledge and align them with the real world scenario.
Teaching strategies and age groups
Teaching strategies vary from one age group to another. None of the method is the best. It depends on the learning style of students. Primary students take more interest in the activities performed in the class. In-class exercises work the best for this age group. Visual and auditory aids improve learning and performance. Whereas, for secondary and tertiary levels, lectures, projects, field work, group exercises and peer teaching are the most suitable strategies to help them. Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences are also being considered and integrated in the lesson plans for improved learning of each and every student.
Reflecting on experiences
I have always taught primary classes so my experience cannot be considered diverse. However, I, along with the other teachers of the same level have tried to integrate teaching strategies which would help students in the best possible way. My teaching strategies were lectures, some kinaesthetic activities like role play, assignments, short reflections, pictorial PowerPoint slides, verbal discussions etc. On the other hand, the students enjoyed the most when they were taken to the computer lab or exposed to nature, especially for science.
Great emphasis has been laid on the teachers to use effective teaching strategies and method for improved learning by many researchers and educationists but on the other hand, one must also understand that the amount of students’ learning in a class also depends on their native ability of cognition and as well as their prior preparation. Teachers should prepare mental set through rapport with students before they start teaching. With the passage of time, the importance of instructors’ teaching style is being spread and the teachers are taking initiative to improve their teaching strategies for students’ improved learning by getting enrolled in such programmes which help them reflect upon their teaching practices and improving them as per requirement. The teachers who are willing for professional development in this area are able to deliver even complex and complicated content effectively, helping the students generate their interest and eagerness for more opportunities of learning in a conducive environment, making all the individuals feel that they are being taught in their own unique way being unique themselves.
Chan Min Kim | Min Kyu Kim | Chia Jung Lee | J. Michael Spector | Karen DeMeester
The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were related to each other. The participants were twenty two teachers who have participated in a four-year professional development project funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Specific relations between teachers' beliefs and technology integration practices are presented. The implications for professional development and suggestions for teacher belief change and technology integration are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Fien Depaepe | Lieven Verschaffel | Geert Kelchtermans
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) was introduced by Shulman in 1986 and refers to the knowledge teachers use to translate particular subject matter to students, taking into account possible (mis)conceptions. PCK was - and still is - very influential in research on teaching and teacher education, mainly within the natural sciences. The present study aims at a systematic review of the way PCK was conceptualized and (empirically) studied in mathematics education research. Based on a systematic search in the databases Eri c, PsycInfo and Web of Science 60 articles were reviewed. We identified different conceptualizations of PCK that in turn had a differential influence on the methods used in the study of PCK. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Bart Rienties | Natasa Brouwer | Simon Lygo-Baker
An important development in higher education is the increased learning possibilities brought by ICT. Many academics seem reluctant to embrace technology. An online teacher training program was followed by 73 academics from nine higher educational institutions. Data were gathered using the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) model and the Teacher Beliefs and Intentions questionnaire using a pre-post test-design. The results amongst 33 participants who completed both pre- and post-test indicate that TPACK skills increased substantially. Over time academics were less convinced about the merits of knowledge transmission. Disciplines and institutional cultures, time investment and beliefs towards employability influenced training retention. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Tina Seidel | Geraldine Blomberg | Alexander Renkl
Using video in teacher education can increase pre-service teachers' ability to apply knowledge. However, video is not effective in itself. To be useful, it must be embedded in appropriate instructional contexts. We investigated the differential impact of two university modules-one using video as an illustrative example (rule-example) and one using video as an anchor (example-rule)-on pre-service teachers' (N=56) knowledge. The rule-example group scored higher on reproducing factual knowledge and evaluating videotaped classroom situations, whereas the example-rule group scored higher on lesson planning. The findings emphasize the need for their targeted use depending on specific learning goals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Johannes König | Sigrid Blömeke | Patricia Klein | Ute Suhl | Andreas Busse | Gabriele Kaiser
We examine how the declarative-conceptual general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) assessed via a paper-and-pencil test can be understood as a premise for early career teachers' ability to notice and interpret classroom situations assessed via video-vignettes. Longitudinal data from TEDS-M conducted in 2008 at the end of teacher education and a follow-up study in Germany in 2012 is used. Teachers' skills to notice and interpret differ. Interpreting correlates with the current level of GPK, whereas noticing does not. GPK at the end of teacher education neither predicts noticing nor interpreting, which suggests teachers' cognitions are reorganized during the transition into teaching. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
This research examines what discourse interactions reveal about teacher learning in Lesson Study (LS) contexts as teachers plan and discuss research lessons.LS group members combined social and cultural capital resources and vivid data from research lessons. This created motivating conditions enabling collective access to imagined practice and joint development of micro practices. Improvements in subsequent teaching, and pupils' learning are reported.Iterative, collaborative LS processes enabled teachers to access tacit knowledge resources and remove filters (developed to cope with classroom complexity), unmasking hidden characteristics of pupils. This both challenged and informed teacher beliefs, motivating joint development of enhanced practices. •LS focus on pupil learning (not teachers) fuels teacher disposition to learn.•LS group talk in role taps tacit knowledge reserves to improve micro-teaching.•Case pupils sharpen teacher understanding of proximal development needs.•LS helps teachers overcome classroom complexity and see pupils afresh.•Interaction-level discourse analysis of teacher talk makes teacher learning visible. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Although teachers' first years in the profession are a widely studied field, the factors that would help to understand the difficulty or the ease with which individuals enter full time teaching and construct their professional identity are still little studied. This narrative study approaches the topic by comparing two newly qualified teachers' professional identity formation. The participants' stories display two different experience narratives: a painful and an easy beginning. The findings show the importance of the teachers' initial identities and the storytelling process to their professional identity formation. The study is part of a longitudinal research project in Finland. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Georgios Gorozidis | Athanasios G. Papaioannou
Based on Self-determination theory, a mixed method design was used to explore 218 teachers' motivation and intentions regarding participation in training and teaching of an innovative academic subject (i.e., Research Project). Structural equation modeling revealed that autonomous motivation positively predicted teacher intentions to participate in relevant training and to implement innovation in the future, while controlled motivation did not. The findings imply that policy makers should encourage strategies that foster teacher autonomous motivation for promoting successful implementations of educational innovations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
N. Aelterman | M. Vansteenkiste | H. Van Keer | J. De Meyer | L. Van den Berghe | L. Haerens
This study investigated 35 physical education teachers' appreciation of a continuous professional development (CPD) training on need-supportive teaching, embedded in Self-Determination Theory, using qualitative (i.e. focus groups) and quantitative methods (i.e. questionnaire). The findings suggest that teachers highly valued opportunities for active participation, collaboration and experiential learning (e.g. microteaching). Of particular interest was the unexpected essential value they placed on theoretical knowledge. In addition, it was critical to be authentic to the content by delivering the training in a need-supportive fashion. Implications for the use of theory and the relevance of congruent teaching in the wider CPD literature are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Stephen Kemmis | Hannu L.T. Heikkinen | Göran Fransson | Jessica Aspfors | Christine Edwards-Groves
This article examines contested practices of mentoring of newly qualified teachers within and between Australia (New South Wales), Finland and Sweden. Drawing on empirical evidence from a variety of studies, we demonstrate three archetypes of mentoring: supervision, support and collaborative self-development. Using the theory of practice architectures, we show that (1) these three forms of mentoring represent three different projects: (a) assisting new teachers to pass through probation, (b) traditional mentoring as support, and (c) peer-group mento̊ and (2) these different projects involve and imply quite different practice architectures in the form of different material-economic, social-political and cultural-discursive arrangements. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Kate MacFarlane | Lisa Marks Woolfson
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted teacher behaviors. Teachers who had attended more in-service training (INSET) sessions held more positive feelings, but teachers with more experience were less willing to work with children with SEBD. Findings suggest that school principals have a central role in promoting an inclusive ethos within their schools. INSET could focus more on challenging beliefs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Marc Kleinknecht | Jürgen Schneider
Despite the widespread use of classroom videos in teacher professional development, little is known about the specific effects of various types of videos on teachers' cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes. This study investigates the processes experienced by 10 eighth-grade mathematics teachers while they analyzed videos of their own or other teachers' classroom instruction. Findings indicate that teachers viewing videos of other teachers are more deeply engaged in analysis of problematic events. Counterintuitively, observing videos of others corresponds to higher emotional-motivational involvement. Results support the conclusion that observing one's own videos requires more prearrangement and scaffolding than observing others' videos. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Andrea Gelfuso | Danielle V. Dennis
Recent international calls in teacher education include increased quantity and quality of field experiences for pre-service teachers (IALEI, 2008; NCATE, 2010). Despite increased attention to the quality of field experiences, there remains "much disagreement about the conditions for teacher learning that must exist for this learning in and from practice to be educative and enduring" (Zeichner, 2010, p. 91). In this formative experiment study (Reinking & Bradley, 2008), we use Dewey's (1933) ideas about judgment, analysis/synthesis, and balance to explore reflection as a communal process which results in "warranted assertabilities" (Dewey, 1986, p. 15) about teaching and learning. Findings show the presence of knowledgable others helped to focus the conversations on teaching and learning but that reflection, as conceived of by Dewey, did not occur. Therefore, additional inquiry is needed into the facilitation of the process of reflection. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Panayiotis Antoniou | Leonidas Kyriakides
This paper reports the results of an experimental study investigating the impact and the one-year sustainability of the effects of the Dynamic Integrated Approach (DIA) to teacher professional development. Teaching skills of the participating teachers and their student achievement in mathematics were measured at the beginning and at the end of the interventions. The DIA had an impact on improving teaching skills and student achievement. A follow-up measurement of teaching skills, one year after the end of the interventions, revealed no further improvement or declination. Implications are drawn and suggestions for further research are provided. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Deidre M. Le Fevre
This research uses an analytical framework of risk to better understand why professional learning initiatives intended to bring about change in teaching practice often fail. Risk-taking is an inherent part of the uncertainty involved in educational change and this study of teachers in professional learning reveals that, if the level of risk is perceived to be too high, teachers will not engage in the pedagogical practices promoted. Implications of this research include the importance of developing capacity to identify risks, reducing the level of perceived risk, and providing a supportive environment in which teachers feel empowered to take risks. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Kimberley Jane Bartholomew | Nikos Ntoumanis | Ricardo Cuevas | Chris Lonsdale
Drawing from self-determination theory, this study examined the interplay among PE teachers' (. N=364) self-reported perceptions of job pressure, psychological need thwarting, burnout, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling indicated that autonomy, competence, and relatedness need thwarting were predicted by teachers' perceptions of job pressure. In turn, the thwarting of each need was positively associated with burnout; the thwarting of the need for competence also predicted somatic complaints. Mediation analyses supported the explanatory role of need thwarting. The findings point to the understudied construct of need thwarting as a promising underlying mechanism for explaining negative health-related outcomes in teachers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Olli Pekka Malinen | Hannu Savolainen | Petra Engelbrecht | Jiacheng Xu | Mirna Nel | Norma Nel | Dan Tlale
The purpose of this study was to explain teachers' perceived efficacy for teaching in inclusive classrooms by using a sample of 1911 in-service teachers from China, Finland, and South Africa. Bandura's theory of self-efficacy was used as a starting point to develop distinct models for each country. We found that in all countries, experience in teaching students with disabilities was the strongest predictor of self-efficacy, while the predictive power of other variables differed from country to country. Our findings illustrate ways to improve teacher education to respond better to the challenges set by the global inclusive education movement. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Hui Wang | Nathan C. Hall | Sonia Rahimi
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The present study expands upon prior research showing teachers' self-efficacy and causal attributions to predict adjustment and attrition in investigating the effects of self-efficacy, attributions for occupational stress, and hypothesized mediation effects on burnout, job satisfaction, illness symptoms, and quitting intentions. Findings from 523 Canadian teachers showed self-efficacy and attributions to independently predict teachers' adjustment, and revealed no empirical support for attributions as a mediator of self-efficacy effects. Results further showed self-efficacy for student engagement, and personally controllable attributions, to most strongly predict teachers' psychological well-being, physical health, and quitting intentions. Implications for professional development and intervention programs are discussed.
Dirk Richter | Mareike Kunter | Oliver Lüdtke | Uta Klusmann | Yvonne Anders | Jürgen Baumert
This study examines the extent to which the quality of mentoring and its frequency during the first years of teaching influence teachers' professional competence and well-being. Analyses are based on a sample of more than 700 German beginning mathematics teachers who participated in a pre-test/post-test study over the course of one year. Findings indicate that it is the quality of mentoring rather than its frequency that explains a successful career start. In particular, mentoring that follows constructivist rather than transmissive principles of learning fosters the growth of teacher efficacy, teaching enthusiasm, and job satisfaction and reduces emotional exhaustion. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Eva Susann Becker | Thomas Goetz | Vinzenz Morger | John Ranellucci
The present study focuses on the relationship between teachers' emotions, their instructional behavior, and students' emotions in class. 149 students (55% female, M age=15.63 years) rated their teachers' emotions (joy, anger, anxiety) and instructional behavior, as well as their own emotions in an experience-sampling study across an average of 15 lessons in four different subject domains. Intraindividual, multilevel regression analyses revealed that perceived teachers' emotions and instructional behavior significantly predicted students' emotions. Results suggest that teachers' emotions are as important for students' emotions as teachers' instructional behavior. Theoretical implications for crossover theory and practical recommendations for teachers are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Per Lindqvist | Ulla Karin Nordänger | Rickard Carlsson
Based on a longitudinal study on Swedish teachers' (N=87) career trajectories this article presents a comparison between quantitative and qualitative data within the cohort and puts this in relation to general statistics on teacher attrition. The analysis indicates that caution is advised in interpreting and making use of general statistics. Teacher attrition is a more non-linear and complex phenomenon than what is typically proposed. In many cases drop-outs are temporary. Individuals not only leave, but also return to, the profession over time and their out-of-school experiences can in many cases be understood as individual initiatives to enhance teaching ability in the long run. © 2014 The Authors.