Chicago Style Citation Essay Format

General Format

Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-02-16 12:40:43

As The Chicago Manual of Style is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than for class papers, where necessary, CMOS guidelines will be supplemented with information from the student reference, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations and additions.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation style, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.

General CMOS Guidelines

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, including block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions. 
  • For block quotations, which are also called extracts:
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked. 
    • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
    • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.  
    • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
    • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool. 
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers. 
    • CMOS recommends you devise your own format but use consistency as your guide. 
      • For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below. 

Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.). 

Major Paper Sections

Title Page
  • According to Turabian style, class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:
    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
    • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later. 
    • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
    • Double-space each line of the title page.

 

    Image Caption: CMOS Title Page

  • Different practices apply for theses and dissertation (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8th ed.]. 

Main Body
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized. 
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name. 
    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized. 
    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
    • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
    • Titles of plays should be italicized.
    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
      • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To off-set the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to off-set the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.

In Flowers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought, Rose eloquently sums up his argument in the following quotation:

In a society of control, a politics of conduct is
    designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the
    organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of
    communication. And these enwrap each individual life
    decision and action—about labour [sic], purchases, debts,
    credits, lifestyle, sexual contracts and the like—in a web
    of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding 
    of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to
    maintain particular types of control over their conduct.
    These assemblages which entail the securitization of
    identity are not unified, but dispersed, not hierarchical
    but rhizomatic, not totalized but connected in a web or
    relays and relations. (246)

References
  • Label the first page of your back matter, and your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author Date style). 
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry. 
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries. 
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry. 
  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries. 
    • For two to three authors, write out all names. 
    • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations. 
    • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text. 
    • Write out publishers’ names in full. 
    • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable. 
    • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
    • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. 
    • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).

Image Caption: CMOS References Page

Footnotes
  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper. 
  • In the text:
    • Note numbers are superscripted.
    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash. 
  • In the notes themselves:
    • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).  
    • Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and documentation by a period. 
      • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
      • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. 

For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper.

Headings

While CMOS does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, CMOS makes several recommendations.

  • Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
  • Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
  • Subheadings should begin on a new line.
  • Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
  • Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
  • Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
  • Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
  • Avoid ending subheadings with periods. 

Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.

Turabian Subheading Plan

Chicago Headings  

Level

Format

1

Centered, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization 

2

Centered, Regular Type, Headline-style Capitalization

3

Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization  

4

Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization

5

Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.

Here is an example of the five-level heading system:

Image Caption: CMOS Headings

 

Tables and Figures
  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
  • For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
  • Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “credit line” at the bottom of the table or figure and, if applicable, after the caption. The credit line should be distinguished from the caption by being enclosed in parenthesis or written in different type.
    • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
    • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by . . . ).
    • If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period. 

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS

Contributors’ names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

    1. Contributors’ Names, “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

    1. Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert,Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca, “General Format,” The Purdue OWL, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Name, Contributor 1, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 (etc.) Name. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited date. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Author Date In-text Citation:

(Contributors’ Surnames year of publication.

(Clements et al. 2017).

Author Date References Page Citation:

Contributor 1 LastName, Contributor 1 FirstName, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. 2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited October 12, 2017. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.

The Ultimate Guide to Citing Anything in Chicago Style

Everything you ever needed to know about citing sources from the Chicago Manual of Style

The Basics of Citing in Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition, was created to help researchers properly cite their sources. There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1). Notes and Bibliography and 2). Author-Date. This guide displays the Notes and Bibliography style of referencing.

Creating a Bibliography in Chicago Style

The bibliography is a list of all the sources used in the paper. The list includes the important publication details of the sources. The bibliography must also follow the following format:
  • The citation list or bibliography must be single spaced.
  • The last names of the authors must be arranged alphabetically.
  • The second line of the source must be indented.

Examples of Citing Different Sources in Chicago Style

Generally, Chicago citations require:
  • Author
  • Title of book/article
  • Title of newspaper/journal
  • Publication year
  • Publication month and date
  • Publisher
  • City of publication
  • Date of access
  • Page numbers
  • URL or DOI (for some online sources)

How to create footnotes and endnotes for Chicago Style

Chicago's Notes and Bibliography formatting requires writers to use footnotes and endnotes when using in-text citations. These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work. When a source is used in a research paper, a roman numeral is placed at the end of the borrowed information as superscript (it is smaller than the normal line of text and raised). That number correlates with a footnote or endnote.
  • Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page
  • Endnotes are added at the end of the chapter or project
  • A footnote or endnote contains the complete citation information.
  • The matching number in the footnote or endnote is normal sized and not raised.
  • It is up to the discretion of the writer to either place the citation at the bottom of the page where the superscript is placed (a footnote) or to place all citations together at the end of the work (endnotes).
Example: One would wonder, "Would young Einstein be characterized as belonging somewhere on the autism spectrum? Would Erdos have been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D.?" ¹ Footnote (placed at the bottom of the page) 1. Silver, Nate. "Beautiful Minds." The New York Times. July 13, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/books/review/the-boy-who-loved-math-and-on-a-beam-of-light.html?ref=books&_r=0. If a source is used more than once in a research project, follow these guidelines:
  • When used again, instead of writing out the complete citation for a second time in the footnote, only include: the author’s last name, the title or a phrase for the title (if it’s more than four words), and the page number(s) that were used. This will reduce the bulk of citation information in the paper.
Example: 1. Cohen, Micah, "Rubio is Losing Support Among Republican Voters." FiveThirtyEight. July 09, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/rubio-is-losing-support-among-republican-voters/ 2. Wolf, Leon H. "Marco Rubio's Campaign Must Adapt or Die." RedState. August 04, 2015. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.redstate.com/2015/08/04/marco-rubios-campaign-must-adapt-die/. 3. Cohen, "Rubio Losing Support" If a source is used consecutively, follow these guidelines:
  • When the same source is used consecutively, instead of typing in the citation information for a third time, use the abbreviation for ibidem: “Ibid.” Ibidem is a latin word that means “in the same place.” Add the page numbers immediately following.
  • If the same source AND same page number is used consecutively, simply write “Ibid.” Ibid. stands for the latin word, ibidem, which means "in the same place"
Example: 3. Rosnay, Tatiana De. Sarah's Key, 24-27. 4. Ibid., 44. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid., 133-134. 7. Doerr, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See, 397-401. 8. Ibid., 405. 9. Ibid., 411. For further clarification on Notes and Bibliography citations, consult the Chicago Manual of Style's website.

Creating Your Citations in Chicago Style

As mentioned, when you're following The Chicago Manual of Style, you'll be required to create a list of all sources used on your paper. Even though full bibliographic information can be found in the footnotes and endnotes, it is still acceptable, and often required by instructors, to create a bibliography. The bibliography is placed at the end of an assignment.

How to Cite a Print Book in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of book.

Example of Chicago Style for Books with One Author

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Staggs, Sam. Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.

Example of Chicago Citation for Books with Multiple Authors

When citing e-books, include the URL or the DOI. The URL or DOI should be the last part of the citation. In the bibliography:

Shohat, Ella and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media.

How to Cite Chapters or Articles from a Book in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Chapter Title." In Book Title,

Example of Chicago Citation for Chapters in a Book

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Aymerich-Franch, Laura and Maddalena Fedele. "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education." In Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education,

How to Cite Online E-books in Chicago Style

When citing e-books, include the URL or the DOI. The URL or DOI should be the last part of the citation. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of Book.

Example of Chicago Citation for E-Books

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Baker, Michael J. The Marketing Book.

How to Cite E-books in Chicago Style E-books from a Kindle or E-book Reader

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of book.

Example of Chicago Citation for Kindle or E-book Reader

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Bomann, Corina. The Moonlight Garden.

How to Cite Print Journals in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.

Example of Chicago Citation for Print Journals

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

O'Brien, Damien, and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World." Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.

How to Cite Database Journals in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No.(Year): Page range. doi or url.

Example of Chicago Citation for Database Journals

In the bibliography:

Schreiber, Trine. "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory." Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3(2014): 346-363. url: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002.

How to Cite Print Magazines in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Title,

Example of Chicago Citation for Print Magazines

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Church, George J. "Sunny Mood at Midsummer" Time,

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.

How to Cite Online Magazines in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Article Title" Magazine Title,

Example of Chicago Citation for Online Magazines

In the footnotes and endnotes:

Gordon, Meryl. “Night of the Long Knives" New York,

How to Cite a Web Page in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Article or Page." Title of Website. Month Day, Year of Publication or last modification. url or doi.

Example of Chicago Citation for a Web Page

In the footnotes and endnotes:

Patel, Sujan. “15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015.” Entrepreneur. January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for websites quickly and accurately.

How to Cite The Bible or Religious Texts in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Title of Bible, Edition. ed. Vol. Number, City: Publisher, Year Published.

Example of Chicago Citation for Bible

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

The Holy Bible, King James Version, Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1997.

How to Cite Blogs in Chicago Style

*According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, blogs are not typically cited in bibliographies. They are cited in the footnotes/endnotes section. A frequently cited blog, however, may be included in the bibliography. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last Name, First Name, "Title of the Blog." Name of Blog Site,

Example of Chicago Citation for Blogs

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Miller, Shannon, "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet." The Library Voice,

How to Cite Broadcasts in Chicago Style

*There is no official citation in the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style for TV or radio broadcasts. Citation Machine has created this citation based on recommendations from librarians. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Name of TV or Radio Broadcast. "Title of Episode." Episode Number (if it's available). Directed by First name Last name. Written by First name Last name. Network name, Month Day Year of first air date.

Example of Chicago Citation for Broadcasts

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Essential Mix. “Eric Prydz and Jeremy Olander.” Hosted by Pete Tong. BBC Radio 1, January 1 2015.

How to Cite a Case Study in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of Case Study.

Example of Chicago Citation for Case Study

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Finn, Peter. Disulfiram.

How to Cite Conference Proceedings in Chicago Style

If the conference paper was included in a published proceeding, cite it like a chapter in a book. If the conference paper was published in a journal, cite it the same way as a journal article.

How to Cite Court or Legal Cases in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies. Any work cited in the text does not need to be listed in the bibliography. For that reason, only the footnotes and endnotes format and examples are included. In the footnotes and endnotes:

Example of Chicago Citation for Legal Cases

]

How to Cite Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, well-known reference books, including major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies. Lesser known reference books can be cited in the bibliography. The abbreviation s.v. means sub verbo, which is latin for "under the word." In the footnotes and endnotes: If found online: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name of Author. Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia.

Example of Chicago Citation for Dictionary Entries

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Gover, Emily. Encyclopedia of Birds.

How to Cite Dissertations in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Dissertation." Degree, School, Year. Database(Identification Number).

Example of Chicago Citation for Dissertations

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Kirschenbaum, Michele. "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities." Master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009.

How to Cite DVDs, Video, and Film in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Title. Directed by First name Last name. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Example of Chicago Citation for Film, DVDs, or Videos

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Home Alone. Directed by Chris Columbus. Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox, 1990. DVD.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for films quickly and accurately.

How to Cite Facebook Pages in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Title of Facebook Page. Accessed Month Day Year. url.

Example of Chicago Citation for Facebook Post

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Awakenings. Accessed February 15, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/awakenings/?fref=ts.

How to Cite Government Publications in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Firm/Department. Title of Publication.

Example of Chicago Citation for Government Publication

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Department of Justice. Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014.

How to Cite Interviews in Chicago Style

Published Interviews are treated like an article in a magazine or a chapter in a book. Use one of those formats to cite your interview.

How to Cite an E-mail in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, personal communications, such as letters, e-mails, text messages, and phone calls are usually referenced in the footnotes and endnotes. They are rarely listed in the bibliography. In addition, an e-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted, unless given permission by its owner. In the footnotes and endnotes:

Example of Chicago Citation for E-mail

How to Cite Musical Recordings in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name of performer. Title of Album,

Example of Chicago Citation for Recordings

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Tiesto. Club Life: Volume 4: New York City,

How to Cite Online Images or Videos in Chicago Style

Title of images are italicized. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography: Last name, First name. "Title of work." Creation Month Day Year. Website. url.

Example of Chicago Citation for Online Image or Videos

Title of images are italicized. Videos are placed in quotations. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Pan Pot. "Awakenings Gashouder Carl Cox And Friends." March 30 2013. online video. YouTube. https://youtu.be/Jk3gGeFuX6A.

How to Cite Photographs in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last Name, First Name. Photograph Title.

Example of Chicago Citation for Photographs

In the footnotes and endnotes:

Liebling, Chris. May Day, New York. 1948. The Jewish Museum, New York City, NY.

How to Cite Plays in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of Play.

Example of Chicago Citation for Play

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Manuel-Miranda, Lin. Hamilton.

How to Cite Podcasts in Chicago Style

When citing podcasts in Chicago Style, treat it as an article in a periodical or a chapter in a book. If found online, include the url.

How to Cite Poems in Chicago Style

When citing poes in Chicago Style, cite it as you would a chapter in a book.

How to Cite Presentations and Lectures in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Lecture." Information about lecture including reason for lecture and meeting place, location, Month Day Year.

Example of Chicago Citation for Lecture

In the bibliography:

Chan, Danny. "Optimizing SEO." Lecture presented at General Assembly, New York, NY, June 8, 2015.

How to Cite Sheet Music in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, cite sheet music the same way as you cite books.

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